# Numbers in C++

Normally, when we work with Numbers, we use primitive data types such as int, short, long, float and double, etc. The number data types, their possible values and number ranges have been explained while discussing C++ Data Types.

## Defining Numbers in C++

You have already defined numbers in various examples given in previous chapters. Here is another consolidated example to define various types of numbers in C++ −#include <iostream>When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result −

using namespace std;

int main () {

// number definition:

short s;

int i;

long l;

float f;

double d;

// number assignments;

s = 10;

i = 1000;

l = 1000000;

f = 230.47;

d = 30949.374;

// number printing;

cout << "short s :" << s << endl;

cout << "int i :" << i << endl;

cout << "long l :" << l << endl;

cout << "float f :" << f << endl;

cout << "double d :" << d << endl;

return 0;

}

short s :10

int i :1000

long l :1000000

float f :230.47

double d :30949.4

## Math Operations in C++

In addition to the various functions you can create, C++ also includes some useful functions you can use. These functions are available in standard C and C++ libraries and called**built-in**functions. These are functions that can be included in your program and then use.

C++ has a rich set of mathematical operations, which can be performed on various numbers. Following table lists down some useful built-in mathematical functions available in C++.

To utilize these functions you need to include the math header file

**<cmath>**.

Sr.No | Function & Purpose |
---|---|

1 | double cos(double);This function takes an angle (as a double) and returns the cosine. |

2 | double sin(double);This function takes an angle (as a double) and returns the sine. |

3 | double tan(double);This function takes an angle (as a double) and returns the tangent. |

4 | double log(double);This function takes a number and returns the natural log of that number. |

5 | double pow(double, double);The first is a number you wish to raise and the second is the power you wish to raise it t |

6 | double hypot(double, double);If you pass this function the length of two sides of a right triangle, it will return you the length of the hypotenuse. |

7 | double sqrt(double);You pass this function a number and it gives you the square root. |

8 | int abs(int);This function returns the absolute value of an integer that is passed to it. |

9 | double fabs(double);This function returns the absolute value of any decimal number passed to it. |

10 | double floor(double);Finds the integer which is less than or equal to the argument passed to it. |

#include <iostream>When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result −

#include <cmath>

using namespace std;

int main () {

// number definition:

short s = 10;

int i = -1000;

long l = 100000;

float f = 230.47;

double d = 200.374;

// mathematical operations;

cout << "sin(d) :" << sin(d) << endl;

cout << "abs(i) :" << abs(i) << endl;

cout << "floor(d) :" << floor(d) << endl;

cout << "sqrt(f) :" << sqrt(f) << endl;

cout << "pow( d, 2) :" << pow(d, 2) << endl;

return 0;

}

sign(d) :-0.634939

abs(i) :1000

floor(d) :200

sqrt(f) :15.1812

pow( d, 2 ) :40149.7

## Random Numbers in C++

There are many cases where you will wish to generate a random number. There are actually two functions you will need to know about random number generation. The first is**rand()**, this function will only return a pseudo random number. The way to fix this is to first call the

**srand()**function.

Following is a simple example to generate few random numbers. This example makes use of

**time()**function to get the number of seconds on your system time, to randomly seed the rand() function −

` `

#include <iostream>When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result −

#include <ctime>

#include <cstdlib>

using namespace std;

int main () {

int i,j;

// set the seed

srand( (unsigned)time( NULL ) );

/* generate 10 random numbers. */

for( i = 0; i < 10; i++ ) {

// generate actual random number

j = rand();

cout <<" Random Number : " << j << endl;

}

return 0;

}

Random Number : 1748144778

Random Number : 630873888

Random Number : 2134540646

Random Number : 219404170

Random Number : 902129458

Random Number : 920445370

Random Number : 1319072661

Random Number : 257938873

Random Number : 1256201101

Random Number : 580322989